Academic writing in the sciences uses a completely different style and format, that of the laboratory or research report. A scientific report typically describes an experiment or study and may also include a summary of prior research. A report follows a very strict, utilitarian style designed to convey information in a specific format. Research writing for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal follows a similar format. Occasionally, the writer may include subjective opinion or personal observation in the concluding section of a report, but this is not typical.
Obtaining a Masters degree sometimes involves writing and presenting a thesis paper, which includes the outcomes of the student’s thesis work plus references to current and prior research in the field of study. To obtain a PhD, one must usually contribute something original and important to existing research, so the final paper (which is the length of a book) includes both references to existing prior research and, more importantly, a detailed discussion and analysis of the PhD candidate’s research contributions in her or his field.